Sc rifa ub. Jaringan, organ, dan sistem organ. Sistem pertahanan tubuhMekanisme pertahanan tubuh, fungsi sel B dan sel T, imunitas aktif dan pasif , mekanisme autoimun 2. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy: scientific discipline thatinvestigates the bodys structure Physiology: scientific investigation of theprocesses or functions of living things 3. Subjects That Encompass BothAnatomy and Physiology Pathology: structural and functionalchanges caused by disease Exercise Physiology: changes in structureand function caused by exercise 5. Principle of Complementarity ofStructure and Function Function always reflects structure What a structure can do depends on its specificform Examples: Friction ridges of the fingers Folding of the intestinal lining Hardness of bone Ultra-thin lining of cells through which diffusion occurs
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An ideal defense strategy prevents invaders from entering the body in the first place. In animal bodies, the first line of defense consists of the two surfaces with direct exposure to the environment: the skin and the mucous membranes of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts. The skin and its secretions block entry and provide an inhospitable environment for microbial growth. Any virus and bacteria droplets from your neighbors sneeze that land on your skin will encounter an outer surface of dry, dead cells.
Most microbes that come in contact with the skin do not obtain the water and nutrients they need to survive. The few bacteria and fungi that manage to gain a foothold on skin will usually be shed before they can do harm, because skin cells are constantly sloughed off and replaced. Secretions from sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and wax-secreting glands in the external ear canal all contain natural antibiotics that inhibit the growth of bacteria foreign to the body.
These multiple defenses make the unbroken skin an extremely effective barrier against microbial invasion. Log masuk Ayo Mulai. Epidermis The epidermis is the outer Download for free Report this document.
Embed Size px x x x x Kulit juga berperan dalam sistem pertahanan tubuh nonspesifik. Skin and mucous membranes form external barriers to invasion An ideal defense strategy prevents invaders from entering the body in the first place. The skin and its secretions block entry and provide an inhospitable environment for microbial growth Any virus and bacteria droplets from your neighbors sneeze that land on your skin will encounter an outer surface of dry, dead cells.
It is made up of stratified squamous epithelium divided into several layers; the deepest layer is the stratum basale, and the most superficial layer is the stratum corneum. Stratum Basale The basal cells of the stratum basale lie just superior to the dermis and are constantly dividing and producing new cells that are pushed to the surface of the epidermis in two to four weeks. As the cells move away from the dermis, they get progressively farther away from the blood vessels in the dermis.
Because these cells are not being supplied with nutrients and oxygen the epidermis itself lacks blood vessels they eventually die and are sloughed off. Langerhans cells are macrophages found deep in the epidermis. Macrophages are related to monocytes, white blood cells produced in red bone marrow. These cells phagocytize microbes and then travel to lymphatic organs, where they stimulate the immune system to react. Melanocytes are another type of specialized cell located in the deeper epidermis.
Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment primarily responsible for skin color. Since the number of melanocytes is about the same in all individuals, variation in skin color is due to the amount of melanin produced and its distribution. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes produce more melanin to protect the skin from the damaging effects of the ultraviolet UV radiation in sunlight. The melanin is passed to other epidermal cells, and the result is tanning, or in some people, the formation of patches of melanin called freckles.
A hereditary trait characterized by the lack of ability to produce melanin is known as albinism. Individuals with this disorder lack pigment not only in the skin, but also in the hair and eyes. Another pigment, called carotene, is present in epidermal cells and in the dermis and gives the skin of certain Asians its yellowish hue.
The pinkish color of fair-skinned people is due to the pigment hemoglobin in the red blood cells in the capillaries of the dermis. Stratum Corneum As cells are pushed toward the surface of the skin, they become flat and hard, forming the tough, uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum.
Hardening is caused by keratinization, the cellular production of a fibrous, waterproof protein called keratin. Over much of the body, keratinization is minimal, but the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet normally have a particularly thick outer layer of dead, keratinized cells. The waterproof nature of keratin protects the body from water loss and water gain.
The stratum corneum allows us to live in a desert or a tropical rain forest without damaging our inner cells. The stratum corneum also serves as a mechanical barrier against microbe invasion. This protective function of skin is assisted by the secretions of sebaceous glands Dermis The dermis contains collagenous and elastic fibers.
The collagenous fibers are flexible but offer great resistance to overstretching; they prevent the skin from being torn. The elastic fibers stretch to allow movement of underlying muscles and joints, but they maintain normal skin tension. The dermis also contains blood vessels that nourish the skin. Blood rushes into these vessels when a person blushes; blood is reduced in them when a person turns cyanotic, or blue.
Sometimes, blood flow to a particular area is restricted in bedridden patients, and consequently they develop decubitus ulcers bedsores These can be prevented by changing the patients position frequently and by massaging the skin to stimulate blood flow. There are also numerous sensory nerve fibers in the dermis that take nerve impulses to and from the accessory structures of the skin Hypodermis Hypodermis, or subcutaneous tissue, lies below the dermis.
From the names for this layer, we get the terms subcutaneous injection, performed with a hypodermic needle. The hypodermis is composed of loose connective tissue, including adipose fat tissue. Fat is an energy storage form that can be called upon when necessary to supply the body with molecules for cellular respiration.
Adipose tissue also helps insulate the body. A well-developed hypodermis gives the body a rounded appearance and provides protective padding against external assaults. Excessive development of adipose tissue in the hypodermis layer results in obesity. Accessory Structures of the Skin Nails grow from special epithelial cells at the base of the nail in the region called the nail root Fig.
These cells become keratinized as they grow out over the nail bed. The visible portion of the nail is called the nail body. The cuticle is a fold of skin that hides the nail root.
Ordinarily, nails grow only about 1 millimeter per week. The pink color of nails is due to the vascularized dermal tissue beneath the nail. The whitish color of the half-moonshaped base, or lunula, results from the thicker germinal layer in this area. Sweat Glands Sweat glands, or sudoriferous glands, are present in all regions of the skin.
There can be as many as 90 glands per square centimeter on the leg, glands per square centimeter on the palms and soles, and an even greater number on the fingertips. A sweat gland is tubular. The tubule is coiled, particularly at its origin within the dermis. These glands become active when a person is under stress. Two types of sweat glands are shown in Figure 5.
Apocrine glands open into hair follicles in the anal region, groin, and armpits. These glands begin to secrete at puberty, and a component of their secretion may act as a sex attractant. Eccrine glands open onto the surface of the skin.
They become active when a person is hot, helping to lower body temperature as sweat evaporates. The sweat perspirati.
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Binar wahyuning widhi,S. In all other areas of the body, the epidermis has only four layers. Stratum basale. These sensory receptor cells aid in tactile touch reception. Function as mechanoreceptors. These cells contain granules that are filled with keratohyalin granule. Stratum lucidum.
Embed Size px x x x x Concrete pipeproducts are made by several processes included nonreinforcedproducts in sizes ranging from 4- to in. Concretepipes have been in widespread usage area for water or sewage. Beycioglu , syildiz rat. Nowadays, underground pipe systems serve in var-ious applications such as sewer lines, drain lines, water mains, gaslines, telephone and electrical conduits, culverts, oil lines, coal slur-ry lines, subway tunnels, and heat distribution lines Moser, There are many types of piping materials in the construction sectortoday, ranging from rigid concrete to exible thermal plastic. They must also be durable enough to last for theirlifetime.