More than fifty free-thinkers participated in an open discussion on the life and work of Aroj Ali. In a welcoming address, Zakir Hossain Bachchu introduced the short life of Aroj Ali and recalled him. In his speech, Professor Matlub Ali discusses Aroj Ali's various inquiries about religion, the world and life. Ahmad Mazhar in his commentary highlighted the contemporary relevance of his general lifestyle and philosophy. According to researcher Jewel Malik, the honest life based on Aroj Ali's reasoning is to follow forever.
|Published (Last):||22 April 2013|
|PDF File Size:||2.7 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||12.10 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
By Ajoy Roy. I would not like to elaborate the concept of Rationalism in front of this august body and the learned gathering. As I understand rationalism is just not a belief or a doctrine, it is a system of analytical method of reaching the truth based on reason, logic and scientific facts. In classical sense, rationalism could be defined in any of the following ways: 1 ' the principle or practice of accepting reason as the only authority in determining one's opinion or course of action.
In philosophy, the theory that the reason or intellect, is the true source of knowledge, rather than senses. In theology, the doctrine that rejects that revelation and the supernatural, and makes reason the sole source of knowledge. Skepticism is a driving force behind rationalism. Accepting a thing without doubt ultimately leads to belief. Unquestioned belief is no other than blindness. So questing about any event, may be natural or social, forms the basic analytical path that would ultimately lead to rationalism.
A rationalist may try to reach truth either in a deductive or in an inductive approach. We in science follow both approaches. I would just give here two examples: In S. Bose, then a young Reader in physics of an unknown university called 'Dacca University' in an attempt to derive Planck's famous law of radiation gave birth of 'Quantum Statistics' - a statistics obeyed by bosons i.
Examples of such particles are photons, phonons, and helium atoms. The basis of his formulation of a new statistics was a few assumptions conceived intuitively: i Photons are not only identical, but also indistinguishable. On the basis of these two fundamental and unique postulates Bose derived the law of statistics for photons before the birth of quantum electrodynamics. The approach followed by Bose is an example of deductive method. On the other hand, Maxwell formulated his famous theory of electromagnetism on the basis of scattered experimental facts and laws of electricity and magnetism, and set up four fundamental equations, which are now known as Maxwell's field equations.
This is the finest example of inductive approach followed in science. Einstein's formulation of theory of relativity is another example where deductive approach was followed. He formulated the theory of relativity in based on two fundamental assumptions: 1 Velocity of light would have constant value in all inertial frames, and 2 All laws of physics will have the same form in all inertial frames.
Since rationalists questioned about every thing to formulate their system of reasoning with ultimate aim of reaching the truth, they are also concerned with what would be knowable and unknowable with present context of our knowledge and available facts. Therefore rationalism and agnosticism are closely related.
Classically one who holds the view -- we know nothing of things beyond material phenomena - that a first cause and an unseen world are things unknown and apparently unknowable is termed as agnostics? In the religious sense one who holds that nothing about God or anything beyond material phenomena are knowable is an agnostics. We the physicists believe in a basic principle very kin to the principle of agnosticism.
This is a principle of impossibility, which slowly but steadily found places in physics. There are certain things in material phenomena, which cannot be achieved or made by men. In thermodynamics there are two well known such principles: impossibility of making a machine, which would generate perpetual motion, secondly, impossibility of achieving the absolute zero degree of temperature. There are certain things whose existence cannot be proved by doing experiments in inertial frames: as for example absoluteness of space-time.
Take the classic example of ether, an entity conceived by 18 th century physicists as a vehicle of propagation of light. But no experiment of physics would prove its existence.
God is such an entity whose existence cannot be proved from the material frame of reference. Agnosticism is precisely the same principle. Theologically speaking, it is a doctrine that God is unknown and unknowable. In philosophy, the doctrine that a first cause and the essential nature of things are unknowable to us the material human beings. As a Physicist I am an agnostics. The entity, which can not be proved from a material frame, does not exist to me- it is a meaningless entity, an unnecessary concept even in philosophical or theological sense- as is ether a useless concept in physics.
If I declare myself an atheist, my atheism springs out from the principle of agnosticism, a principle based on physics; it is not just a faith or belief in the religious sense. It is generally believed that concepts of those doctrines such as atheism, agnosticism and rationalism are originated in European thought. This is not however entirely true.
As we know now that corresponding term of atheism in Indian Philosophy is Nastikata or Nastibad disbelieving in God, the Creator. The concept is closely related to Karmanam - denying of consequences of work. Dhisan before Gautam Budha developed the Nastikata or atheism, as a philosophy. According to him the Universe exists, but not God, the Creator; only eternal entity entity is the matter, and matter consists of four elements: earth soil , water, enegy, and air.
The creation of life is a specific process of nature and evolves out of the composite composition of four elements. With death all ends. Perception is the only direct proof of existence. Agnosticism has also its origin in Indian Philosophy. Sanjoy Belthiputta was probably the founder of this school of philosophy, who flourished during the time of Lord Budha.
We cannot prove or disprove the existence of God. Rationalism is known in Indian thought as Hetubad theory of reasons i. Rationalism and Humanism :. In India , more particularly in Bengal the rationalism is not devoid of Humanism. Rather our concept of rationalism is based on humanism,- this is more so in rural Bangla. Although most of the people of Bengal are religious in nature, but they are, or were never dogmatic, or fundamentalist.
Even Islam in Bengal has its own characteristic- it is quite different from the fundamentalistic Islam. Aroj Ali's rationalism sprang out from the love of human being what we call in Bengal ' Manabatabad '.
The basis of humanism in Bangladesh in our folk culture lies in the love for common man and equality of men. These two thoughts find their expression in many songs sung by our folk-singers. As for example the 16 th century Vaisnab poet Chandidas sang in a very simple language pointing out the supremacy of mankind:.
Human being is at top of all truths,. There is nothing above mankind. Sabar Upare Manush Satya,. Tahar Upare Nai. Our unknown folk poet wrote many many years back,. Yet milk is always white,. I roamed around the world, yet.
I found mankind is the son of the same mother. Eky Mayer Poot. Apart from local variety of Islam, Hinduism is an important religion in Bangladesh. Any Indologist would note that in Hinduism flow three inner streams: i Brahmanism drawing its inspiration from Vedas and Puranas, ii Vaisnbaism the cult of devotion and love for human beings , and iii Shaktaism or Tantrikism.
According to socio-cultural anthropologists Vaisnav Cult and Tantrikism flourished in Eastern part of India i. On the other hand Brahmanism took its shape in Ayrabarta or land of Aryans , the northern India.
The people of Eastern India were referred to as 'Asuras' in post Vedic literature, particularly in Puranas. The people named Asuras, although shown as competitors of Devtas, were not pictured as uncivilized or barbaric.
It is not difficult to identify that the Asuras or people of Eastern India , or more properly the ancient Bengal and its adjacent areas including eastern Bihar , Brhamputra valley of Asam , and present Orissa were culturally and perhaps ethnically different people from those inhabiting northern India.
On the other hand, the people of Eastern India were shown to be heroic, cultured and possessed a very high level of civilization. Perhaps linguistically the two people were not so different- languages of both people belonged to a common language a family of Indo European language.
But who were Asuras? What was their root of culture and religion? Scholars do not agree with each other. From Bagavat Geeta it can be gauged that two people Devata and Asura belonged two different anthropological races. It says " In the world two kinds of people were created DwouBhutaSargau Lokahsmina Daiba Asura ebacha ; Signs of Devatas are non-violence, truth, non-anger, kindness, forgiveness etc.
Even Indra was called Asura in many places of RigVeda. As for example in one Rig it stated " From He who is conqueror of enemies and straight on his own strength, bow down to him with respect and pronounce praise with all humiliation as He is glorious, great and Asura.
However in later period of Veda even Vedas statrted abusing Asuras as they do not follow Vedic rituals and do not accept Veda as the ultimate source of knowledge. But we must try to understand the origin of the Asura cult as against Vedic cult. As we stated earlier that Tantrikism and Shaktism flourished in Eastern India more particularly in Bengal. It is now understood that the Shaktism or Tantrikism had its roots in ' Lokayata Darshan ' philosophy of common man , an important school of Indian philosophy.
According to Madhavacharya "The Lakayatibadis followers of Lokayata have no faith in knowledge other than which is directly derived from the perception our sense organs. So they do not believe in any other source of knowledge that is extra-sensory.
Hence they do not admit any other world other than the material world we live in. Therefore to them no other bliss exists other than those are enjoyable in this world. This is the basic principle of all variety of tantrikism. If you glorify the body, care for the body you will get the bliss of this world as well as after world.
For this reason people who do not give away and those who are disrespectful and do not perform sacrifice jagyanga are looked upon as Asuras. This is the Upanisad of the Asuras.
By Ajoy Roy. I would not like to elaborate the concept of Rationalism in front of this august body and the learned gathering. As I understand rationalism is just not a belief or a doctrine, it is a system of analytical method of reaching the truth based on reason, logic and scientific facts. In classical sense, rationalism could be defined in any of the following ways: 1 ' the principle or practice of accepting reason as the only authority in determining one's opinion or course of action. In philosophy, the theory that the reason or intellect, is the true source of knowledge, rather than senses. In theology, the doctrine that rejects that revelation and the supernatural, and makes reason the sole source of knowledge. Skepticism is a driving force behind rationalism.
Aroj Ali Matubbar
He was born in the village of Charbaria Lamchari , about 11 kilometres 6. He was born to a poor farming family. He studied for only a few months at the village maqtab , however this brief dabble in institutional education centered only on the Quran and other Islam studies. Matubbar lost his father at an early age.