The following types of hammer arrangements are included in this practice It is up to the owner or specifier to establish the specific required number of blows to be used for compaction of the specimen in relation to the field. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. These notes and footnotes excluding those in tables and figures shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.
|Published (Last):||21 May 2004|
|PDF File Size:||1.92 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||13.36 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Preparation of Bituminous Specimens Using Marshall Apparatus1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
Referenced Documents 2. Significance and Use 3. Density and voids analysis are also conducted on specimens for mixture design and evaluation of field compaction.
NOTE 1Uncompacted mixtures are used for determination of theoretical maximum specific gravity. Apparatus 4. The steel disk is used for extracting compacted specimens from molds with the use of the mold collar. Any suitable extraction device such as a hydraulic jack apparatus or a lever arm device may be used, provided the specimens are not deformed during the extraction process.
Current edition approved June 15, Published September Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D DOI: Scope 1. This practice is intended for use with laboratory and plant produced bituminous mixtures with aggregate up to 25 mm 1 in. The following types of hammer arrangements are included in this practice: 1.
There may or may not be a constant surcharge on top of the hammer handle. Mechanical hammers are available that operate at 1 nominal 55 blows per minute and 2 equal to or greater than 75 blows per minute.
It is up to the user to establish the specific required number of blows to be used for compaction of the specimen in relation to the field. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. These notes and footnotes. The base rotation rate and hammer blow rate shall be 18 to 30 rpm and 64 6 4 blows per minute, respectively.
A typical mechanical hammer is shown in Fig. NOTE 2Manual compaction hammers should be equipped with a finger safety guard. Multiple hammer operation will affect specimen density and is not recommended.
Best comparative results will be obtained by compacting all specimens with the same hammer and with no other hammers operating. A rotating mechanism is incorporated in the base.
The wooden post shall be secured by. D 10 the mix can be maintained at the required temperature and mixing will produce a well-coated, homogeneous mixture of the required amount in the allowable time, and further provided that essentially all of the batch can be recovered.
A metal pan or bowl of sufficient capacity for hand mixing may also be used. Armored-glass or dial-type thermometers with metal stems are recommended. A range from 50 to F 10 to C with sensitivity of 3C 5F is required. NOTE 4Standardization practices specified in Specification D are recommended for the thermometer used in this test method.
Dial thermometer may exhibit inaccuracies due to frequently use or mishandling. It is recommended that the standardization of dial thermometers be conducted more frequently by a comparison to a reference thermometric device of equal or greater readability at a temperature within the range of intended use. Test Specimens 5. Oven drying should be done at to C to F.
After cooling, separate the aggregates by dry-sieving into the desired size fractions. The steel cap shall be firmly fastened to the post. The pedestal assembly shall be installed so that the post is plumb and the cap is level. Specimen mold-holders of multi-hammer compactors are not necessarily centered. The holders shall hold the compaction mold, collar, and base plate securely in position during compaction of the specimen.
Suitable shields, baffle plates, or sand baths shall be used on the surfaces of the hot plates to minimize localized overheating. An example of a viscosity temperature chart is given in Fig. D 10 mately 60 s for single-specimen batches and approximately s for multiple-specimen batches. Hand mix to ensure uniformity and quarter into appropriate sample size to conform to specimen height requirements.
For asphalt cements and tar mixtures, put the samples into metal containers and cover. Place the covered metal containers in a ventilated oven at the temperature established in 5. Cure cutback asphalt mixture in the mixing bowl in a ventilated oven maintained at approximately 20F 11C above the compaction temperature. The mix may be stirred in the mixing bowl during curing to accelerate the solvent loss. However, care should be exercised to prevent mix loss.
The user should contact the manufacturer to establish appropriate mixing and compaction temperature ranges. The compaction temperature for a cutback asphalt mixture is selected using a compositional chart of viscosity versus percent solvent for that cutback asphalt.
From the compositional chart, determine the cutback asphalts percentage of solvent by weight from its viscosity at F 60C after it has lost 50 percent of its solvent for rapid-cure and medium-cure cutbacks or 20 percent of its solvent for slow cure cutbacks.
The compaction temperature is determined from the viscosity temperature chart as that to which the cutback asphalt must be heated to produce a viscosity of 6 30 cP 0. Heating should only be long enough to achieve desired compaction temperature. If the compaction temperature for a specific mixture is not known, experience has shown that these mixes should be compacted at a temperature between F C and F C. In preparation for heating to compaction temperature the material should be warmed and worked until a loose mixture condition is obtained.
Any cut aggregate can be removed. Stability of reheated and recompacted mixtures from existing pavements is likely to be higher than the original mixture due to in service hardening of the binder. The reheating process will have only minor influence on binder hardening. Place aggregate batches in containers on a hot plate or in an oven and heat to a temperature above but not exceeding the mixing temperature established in 5.
Charge the mixing container with the heated aggregate and dry mix thoroughly approximately 5 s with scoop or spoon. Form a crater in the dry blended aggregate and weigh the required amount of bituminous material at mixing temperature into the mixture. For mixes prepared with cutback asphalt, introduce the mixing blade in the mixing bowl and determine the total weight of the mix components plus bowl and blade before proceeding with mixing.
Care must be exercised to prevent loss of the mix during mixing and subsequent handling. At this point, the mixture temperature shall be within the limits of the mixing temperature established in 5. Mix the aggregate and bituminous material rapidly until thoroughly coated for approxi-. Place a piece of nonabsorbent paper, cut to size, in the bottom of the mold before the mixture is introduced. Place the mixture in the mold, spade the mixture vigorously with a heated spatula or trowel 15 times around the perimeter and 10 times over the interior.
Place another piece of nonabsorbent paper cut to fit on top of the mix. Temperature of the mixture immediately prior to compaction shall be within the limits of the compaction temperature established in 5. Remove the base plate and collar and reverse and reassemble the mold.
Apply the same number of compaction blows to the face of the reversed specimen. After compaction, remove the collar and base plate. Allow the specimen to cool sufficiently to prevent damage and extract the specimen from the mold.
Cooling specimens in the mold can be facilitated by immersion in cold water. To facilitate extraction, the mold and specimen can be briefly immersed in a hot water bath to heat the metal mold and reduce specimen distortion.
Carefully transfer specimens to a smooth, flat surface and allow to cool at room temperature this may be overnight. A fan can be used to facilitate cooling. NOTE 6Heating mixtures for a period of time prior to compaction may result in specimens having properties that are different from those that are compacted immediately after mixing original Marshall criteria are based on a no-cure procedure. D 10 hammer by hand, as nearly perpendicular as possible to the base of the mold assembly during compaction.
In this original Marshall procedure, no mechanical device of any kind shall be used to restrict the handle of the hammer in the vertical position during compaction. Precision 7. Specimens should be accepted or rejected for further testing based on requirements of the criteria being applied.
For Marshall stability, and flow determination according to Practice D, use only those replicate specimens which have bulk specific gravities within Report 6. NOTE 8For two specimens prepared by laboratories participating in a AMRL reference testing program, the single operator 1s and the acceptable difference of two results, d2s, for the bulk specific gravity were 0.
ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn.
Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters.
Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.
Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phone , fax , or service astm.
Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website www. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Much more than documents.
Active view current version of standard. Other Historical Standards. Work Item s - proposed revisions of this standard. More D The following types of hammer arrangements are included in this practice:.
Preparation of Bituminous Specimens Using Marshall Apparatus1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Referenced Documents 2. Significance and Use 3.