BAHAN AJAR BIOLOGI MOLEKULER PDF

Gene expression is the process by which the genetic code — the nucleotide sequence — of a gene is used to direct protein synthesis and produce the structures of the cell. Translation : the use of mRNA to direct protein synthesis, and the subsequent post-translational processing of the protein molecule. Transcription is the process of RNA synthesis, controlled by the interaction of promoters and enhancers. In translation the mature mRNA molecule is used as a template to assemble a series of amino acids to produce a polypeptide with a specific amino acid sequence. The complex in the cytoplasm at which this occurs is called a ribosome.

Author:JoJom Malakus
Country:Guyana
Language:English (Spanish)
Genre:Finance
Published (Last):12 September 2014
Pages:101
PDF File Size:8.35 Mb
ePub File Size:17.22 Mb
ISBN:458-8-43603-357-6
Downloads:36903
Price:Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader:Kazragul



Gene expression is the process by which the genetic code — the nucleotide sequence — of a gene is used to direct protein synthesis and produce the structures of the cell.

Translation : the use of mRNA to direct protein synthesis, and the subsequent post-translational processing of the protein molecule. Transcription is the process of RNA synthesis, controlled by the interaction of promoters and enhancers. In translation the mature mRNA molecule is used as a template to assemble a series of amino acids to produce a polypeptide with a specific amino acid sequence. The complex in the cytoplasm at which this occurs is called a ribosome.

Ribosomes are a mixture of ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA rRNA , and consist of a large subunit and a small subunit. Gene regulation is a label for the cellular processes that control the rate and manner of gene expression.

A complex set of interactions between genes, RNA molecules, proteins including transcription factors and other components of the expression system determine when and where specific genes are activated and the amount of protein or RNA product produced. Some genes are expressed continuously, as they produce proteins involved in basic metabolic functions; some genes are expressed as part of the process of cell differentiation; and some genes are expressed as a result of cell differentiation.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a role in regulating the transcription of genes by binding to specific regulatory nucleotide sequences. Dikelola oleh Dr. Lihat semua pos dari Biologyysm. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Beri tahu saya komentar baru melalui email. Beritahu saya pos-pos baru lewat surat elektronik.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Lanjut ke konten. Gene expression and regulation. Gene expression Gene expression is the process by which the genetic code — the nucleotide sequence — of a gene is used to direct protein synthesis and produce the structures of the cell. A structural gene involves a number of different components: Exons.

Exons code for amino acids and collectively determine the amino acid sequence of the protein product. It is these portions of the gene that are represented in final mature mRNA molecule. Introns are portions of the gene that do not code for amino acids, and are removed spliced from the mRNA molecule before translation.

Gene control regions Start site. A start site for transcription. A promoter. It is not transcribed into mRNA, but plays a role in controlling the transcription of the gene.

Transcription factors bind to specific nucleotide sequences in the promoter region and assist in the binding of RNA polymerases. These sites may be thousands of nucleotides from the coding sequences or within an intron. Some enhancers are conditional and only work in the presence of other factors as well as transcription factors. Transcription Transcription is the process of RNA synthesis, controlled by the interaction of promoters and enhancers. Transcription involves four steps: Initiation.

The DNA molecule unwinds and separates to form a small open complex. In prokaryotes RNA polymerase is a holoenzyme consisting of a number of subunits, including a sigma factor transcription factor that recognises the promoter. The process includes a proofreading mechanism.

In prokaryotes there are two ways in which transcription is terminated. In Rho-independent termination , a loop forms at the end of the RNA molecule, causing it to detach itself. After transcription the RNA molecule is processed in a number of ways: introns are removed and the exons are spliced together to form a mature mRNA molecule consisting of a single protein-coding sequence.

RNA synthesis involves the normal base pairing rules, but the base thymine is replaced with the base uracil. Translation In translation the mature mRNA molecule is used as a template to assemble a series of amino acids to produce a polypeptide with a specific amino acid sequence.

Translation involves four steps: Initiation. It then forms a complex with the large unit of the ribosome complex and an initiation tRNA molecule. An enzyme peptidyl transferase links the amino acids together using peptide bonds. The process continues, producing a chain of amino acids as the ribosome moves along the mRNA molecule. The ribosomal complex in eukaryotes is larger and more complicated than in prokaryotes. In addition, the processes of transcription and translation are divided in eukaryotes between the nucleus transcription and the cytoplasm translation , which provides more opportunities for the regulation of gene expression.

Post-translation processing of the protein Gene regulation Gene regulation is a label for the cellular processes that control the rate and manner of gene expression. Mechanisms of gene regulation include: Regulating the rate of transcription.

This is the most economical method of regulation. Regulating the processing of RNA molecules, including alternative splicing to produce more than one protein product from a single gene. Regulating the stability of mRNA molecules. Regulating the rate of translation. Bagikan ini: Twitter Facebook. Menyukai ini: Suka Memuat Diterbitkan oleh Biologyysm. Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan Ketikkan komentar di sini Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:.

Email Alamat takkan pernah dipublikasikan. Situs Web. Dengan melanjutkan menggunakan situs web ini, Anda setuju dengan penggunaan mereka. Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut, termasuk cara mengontrol cookie, lihat di sini: Kebijakan Cookie.

C3552 DATASHEET PDF

Materi Review Genetika dan Biologi Molekuler : Gene expression and regulation

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is the molecule that carries the genetic information in all cellular forms of life and some viruses. It belongs to a class of molecules called the nucleic acids, which are polynucleotides — that is, long chains of nucleotides. The backbone of the polynucleotide is a chain of sugar and phosphate molecules. Each of the sugar groups in this sugar-phosphate backbone is linked to one of the four nitrogenous bases.

APOSTILA DE RPG FISIOTERAPIA PDF

BIOLOGI MOLEKULER Pengenalan Biologi Molekuler Materi Genetik

Kami berharap bahwa Anda menikmati presentasi ini. Untuk men-download , silahkan rekomendasi presentasi ini kepada teman-teman Anda dalam jaringan sosial. Tombol yang haris diklik terletak di bawah posting ini. Terima kasih. Diterbitkan oleh Mahendra Bani Telah diubah "5 tahun yang lalu. Transformasi Genetik Rekombinasi, Transposon dan Retrovirus.

KACANG ERCIS PDF

Materi Review Genetika dan Biologi Molekuler : DNA, genes and chromosomes

.

IAASB HANDBOOK 2014 PDF

We apologize for the inconvenience...

.

Related Articles