Motoren der Innovation pp Cite as. Unter diesen Bedingungen kommen traditionelle Organisationsformen zunehmend unter Druck Miles et al. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
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The conducted research allowed to recognize that it is possible to measure crowdsourcing results using quantitative and qualitative indicators. Keywords: crowdsourcing, effectiveness, measurement, public organizations. For many organizations, crowdsourcing is an opportunity to achieve or increase competitive advantage Rouse, ; Whitla, It is also used by public organizations in their activity. In addition, organizations often make use of crowdsourcing without fully understating its effectiveness Bayus, This subject matter seems to be important — the evaluation of crowdsourcing seems to be of importance to public organizations.
The article is composed of three parts. The second part is devoted to measuring the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in public organizations. An original proposal of measures, based on which one may carry out an evaluation of the degree of realization of assumed tasks and specify the level of the achieved crowdsourcing results, is presented in the article.
The first time the notion of crowdsourcing appeared in the subject literature was in by J. Selected definitions were presented in Table 1. Table 1. Selected definitions of crowdsourcing. This can take the form of peer-production when the job is performed collaboratively , but is also often undertaken by sole individuals. Form of integration of users or consumer in internal processes of value creation. The essence of crowdsourcing is an intended mobilization with allocation of commercial exploration of creative ideas and other form of work performed by the consumer.
Outsourcing of the phase of generating ideas to potentially large and unknown groups of people in the form of an open call. The process of organising work in which the organization offers payment for realization of tasks by the crowd members. Purposeful mobilization through web 2. Source: Lenart-Gansiniec , pp. Despite the proliferation of the considerations on crowdsourcing, there is no agreement as to the definition of crowdsourcing. Sivula and Kantola, in their accurate formulation of the issue of defining crowdsourcing, mention that it includes the human factor.
According to one of the most frequently quoted researchers of crowdsourcing, Zhao and Zhu , during crowdsourcing measurement three perspectives should be considered, i. Such an approach to the measurement is also shared by Soliman Despite recommendations and indications, research is limited to one level of crowdsourcing chosen by the researchers.
Not without importance are also crowdsourcing phases. In the preparation phase the identification of the problem, the defining of tasks which the organization wants to hand over to the virtual community, and defining the target group, all take place.
The generation phase concerns the incoming ideas, coordination, and entering into interactions with the virtual community. In the evaluation phase verification of the received solutions and ideas according to the criteria defined earlier, selection of the best solutions, and granting awards takes place. Since we have been observing tendencies to incorporate crowdsourcing by public organizations into their activity.
There are many various crowdsourcing initiatives Table 2. Taking into account the existing crowdsourcing classifications an attempt was made to integrate them into four categories, types, or areas of usage: 1 Problem solving collective intelligence , wisdom of the crowd ; 2 Rating ready solutions crowdvoting , crowdrating ; 3 Raising money crowdfunding ; 4 Creating creative contents, co-creation crowdcreation , user-generated content.
This division makes reference to the results obtained by other researchers Hudson-Smith et al. Table 2. Selected examples of crowdsourcing initiatives realised by public organizations. The organization hands over problems to the crowd asking them to search for ideas and solutions.
Identification of new solutions to problems, e. Open Data, Dear Mr. President, Challenge. The organization encourages web users to generate new ideas, solve problems of an image, social, and political nature.
Obtaining of ready designs of logotypes, names, plans for developing of urban space, strategies. Reporting about occurring threats, problems,. Financing of construction designs, social infrastructure facilities. The selected examples of crowdsourcing initiatives presented above show that crowdsourcing in public organizations is becoming more and more popular. What is more, one may attempt to ascertain that, although in Poland it is in the early development phase, it is becoming almost an obligation abroad and especially in the United States.
The biggest interest is raised by encouraging the crowd to generate new ideas, test products, services, and solve various problems. It seems that crowdsourcing facilitates the process of collective designing. Effectiveness, both in the vernacular and in the subject literature, is understood and defined in various ways.
It should be remembered that effectiveness is gradable and the measurement of effectiveness is the degree to which you reach all the final goals of an action. It is important to define the goal, criteria, and measurement indicators Krawiec, One may search in vain the methods related to crowdsourcing in the literature. This means that crowdsourcing and the tools connected with it must be built taking into consideration concrete tasks and needs. In line with the above, it is assumed that crowdsourcing is effective when the organization has attained the assumed goal.
However, it is dependent on intermediate goals, which draw closer to the intended effect — i. If the goal has measurable features then the organization has the capability of evaluating the effectiveness of its realization. This does not, of course, exclude the possibility of graduating the level of realization of each particular goal. The phases of crowdsourcing have also been considered. It should, however, be remembered that some indicators work out only in the case of specific subjects of crowdsourcing — the measurement should take into account their specifics.
This is particularly important in the case of public organizations. Some of them do not arouse the interest of the virtual community www. Table 3. An original tool for evaluating crowdsourcing effectiveness — audit questions. Has the goal of crowdsourcing been defined? Has the choice of crowdsourcing type been made? Has the task directed to the crowd been selected? Have expectations towards the virtual community been formulated?
Will the organization use the existing crowdsourcing platform? Has the crowdsourcing target group been defined sex, age, education, place of residence? Has an open call inviting the community to collaborate been prepared? Have the tasks and problems been defined properly? Have prizes for the best ideas been agreed upon?
Have persons responsible for entering into interactions with the virtual community been appointed? Is the platform accessible by means of various devices and operating systems? Is the idea inflow process continuously monitored? Does the organization communicated with the virtual community?
Does the organization inspire the virtual community to take action? Does the organization verify the received solutions? Is the virtual community encouraged do exchange opinions? Is the virtual community encouraged to submit ideas? Do the members of the virtual community enter into interactions with other users?
Do the members of the virtual community possess appropriate competences? Do the members of the virtual community collaborate with each other? Do the members of the virtual community share knowledge among themselves?
Has the measurement of the confidence towards the organization of the virtual community members been made? Have the submitted solutions been verified? Are the submitted ideas conforming to the assumed criteria? Have the member of the virtual community been informed about the selection of the best solution? Has the decision on further collaboration with the virtual community been made? Has an evaluation of the crowdsourcing platform usefulness been conducted? Has the virtual community been informed about the scope of idea implementation?
Secondly, this scale enables one to increase measurement accuracy and to ensure greater transparency and reliability of the evaluation. Based on literature research Buettner, the following conditions of crowdsourcing were defined, which should be evaluated qualitatively — its multidimensionality has been taken into account in this respect:. From the process perspective an important role is played by unreliability or an improperly selected crowdsourcing platform, i.
Fostering Collaboration by Location-Based Crowdsourcing
Crowdsourcing is a recently developed method that relies on various alternatives of collaboration to solve problems efficiently. Crowdsourcing is a recent development to solve a variety of problems efficiently, and which implies various alternatives of collaboration. However, as novel technologies are able to exploit location-sensing capabilities of mobile devices, location-based crowdsourcing LBCS developed as a new concept. This paper suggests a typology for LBCS as a means for fostering collaboration with the crowd through three types of LBCS: confirmation-based, digital good-based, and physical-based. Each type is underpinned with exemplary applications. Furthermore, opportunities and challenges are analysed; and future trends in LBCS are discussed.
Collaborative Communities als Organisationsform für Innovation
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