Introduction to microcontrollers and HC Recommend Documents. Introduction to microcontrollers - Irawiki. Also, for the valence band of heavy holes with minus sign and designated. An Introduction to Practical Electronics, Microcontrollers and
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Define bit, byte and word. A digit of the binary number or code is called bit. Also, the bit is the fundamental storage unit of computer memory. BYTE: the 8-bit 8-digit binary number or code is called byte. And bit binary number or code is called word. What is MPU? MPU is a device or group of devices that can communicate with peripherals, providing timing signals, direct data flow, and perform computing tasks as specified by the instructions in memory. State the relation between the number of address pins and physical memory space.
The size of the binary number used to address the memory decides the physical memory space. If a microprocessor has n-address pins then it can directly address 2n memory locations. What are the limitations of microprocessor when compared with MPU?
The buses need to be demultiplexed. Why data bus is bi-directional? The microprocessor has to fetch read the data from memory or input device for processing and after processing, it has to store write the data to memory or output device.
Hence data bus is bi- directional. Why address bus is unidirectional? It is an output signal from the processor. Hence address bus is unidirectional. The ALU is the unit that performs the arithmetic or logical operations. Apart from processing the data, the CPU controls the entire system functioning. Usually a microprocessor will be the CPU of a system and it is called the brain of the computer. What is tri- state logic? In tri-state logic, three logic levels are used and they are High, Low, and High impedance state.
The High and Low are normal logic levels and high impedance state is electrical open circuit condition. Why tri state logic is needed in microprocessor system? In microprocessor system all devices are connected to a common bus. But communication takes place between the master microprocessor and one slave peripheral at any time instant.
During this time instant, all other devices should be isolated from the bus. Therefore, normally all the slaves peripherals will remain in high impedance state in electrical isolation the master will Prepared by A.
When the slave is selected, it comes to normal logic and it communicates with master. What is the function of microprocessor in a system? The microprocessor is the master in the system, which controls all the activity of the system.
It issues address and control signals and fetches the instruction and data from memory. Then it executes the instruction to take appropriate action. Give the basic blocks of microprocessor. The basic blocks of a microprocessor are ALU, an array of registers and a control unit. List out the signals of the microprocessor.
Give the classifications of computers. The computers can be classified into micro, mini, and large computers. What is a microcomputer? The computing system designed using a microprocessor as its CPU is called microcomputer.
Give the uses of mini computers. Mini computers are used for business data processing, industrial control and scientific approach. Give the advantages of microprocessor based system. The microprocessor-based system offers high speed, intelligence, automation, flexibility, compactness and flexibility. Give the limitations of microprocessor-based system.
Microprocessor based system has limitation on size of data, less execution speed, limited address space, does not support floating point operations. Intel is a 8-bit microprocessor. Explain the difference between a microprocessor and microcomputer. The term microcomputer refers to the whole system, whereas the microprocessor is the CPU of the system. What are the drawbacks of first generation computers? The first generation computers are fabricated using PMOS technology and it has the drawbacks like slow speed, provides low output currents and was not compatible with TTL logic levels.
List the components of microprocessor- based single board microcomputer system. What is mainframe? The largest and most powerful computers are called mainframes. Prepared by A. What is super computer? The computer built using very high speed devices or devices with very low switching speeds and can execute instructions at very high speeds are called supercomputers. The speed of the super computers are measured in MIPS Millions of instructions per second or Mega flops millions of floating point operations per second.
List the applications of microcomputer. What are the various units in the architecture? Arithmetic and Logic unit ALU. Address Buffer. Interrupt Control. Timing and Control Circuitry. List the registers used in The registers can be classified as: 1. General Purpose Registers. Temporary Registers. Special Purpose Registers. What are general purpose registers? HL register pair also functions as data pointer or memory pointer. HL registers are also called scratch pad registers, Prepared by A.
What are Temporary Registers? What is a Special Purpose Register? It is a tri-state 8 bit reg. What is a Flag Register? In which 5 of the bits carry significant info in form of flags. Sign flag. Zero flag. Auxiliary carry flag. Parity flag and 5. Carry flag. What is sign Flag? After the execution of ALU operations if bit D7 of the result is 1, the sign flag is set. If D7 is 1, the number will be viewed as a negative number.
If D7 is 0, the number will be viewed as a positive flag. What is Zero Flag?
CS 2252 – MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS.pdf
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Introduction to microcontrollers and HC11
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