Luigi Dallapiccola February 3, — February 19, was an Italian composer known for his lyrical twelve-tone compositions. Unlike many composers born into highly musical environments, his early musical career was irregular at best. Political disputes over his birthplace of Istria , then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, led to instability and frequent moves. His father was headmaster of an Italian-language school — the only one in the city — which was shut down at the start of World War I.
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Chris MacRae. Simbolo: This movement is in an ABA ternary form, , , and , and uses a few methods to differentiate between them. The opening A section utilizes a very rhythmic ostinato in the left hand with a very accentuated staccatissimo articulation, while the right hand is sostenuto block chords without pedal. In measure 6, both hands use the same progression of block chords in a much faster eight note progression, before repeating this pattern in measure There is a marked textural change in measure 17, where the the staccatissimo ostinato is replaced with more of a legato oscillation, and the lyrical line moves to the left hand.
The return of the A section is announced by the return of the staccatissimo ostinato in the bass line, although the right hand returns with block chords before playing the same opening theme in measure There are two other factors are used to delineate the ABA sections, the first being tempo markings, and the third voicing. The final trichord of the Prime row [0,4,9] creates a minor sonority, while the final trichord of the Inversion row [4,8,e] creates a major sonority, both prime form With these trichords, Dallapiccola selects his rows to create a quasi-tonal Baroque chord progression throughout the entire movement Figure 1.
For example in measure 2, there is an eb minor triad [3,6,t, e ] followed by a Bb7 chord with a missing fifth [t, e , 2, 5 , 8] in measure 3, followed by a half-diminished G7 chord [7,t, e ,1,5] in measure 4, which leads to the a minor [9,0,4] chord from the end of the P10 row. The first four rows, PRP5-R5, pretty much present the same thematic material and chords, so that the listener can start to recognize the progression. At the end of the B section, we see a similar back and forth progression when, starting in measure 25, there are five prime and retrograde rows back to back P7-R7-P7-R7-P7.
The motive itself is inversionally symmetrical and appears twelve times in various transpositions and inversions Figure 2.
There are three lines that are woven together to create the BACH motive Figure 3 : The first is the actual motive [3,2,5,4] ; the second or middle line uses the same first two notes, but instead of moving up an IC3, it continues downwards by half step [3,2,1,0] ; the third or bass line is a different pitch order [6,8,7,9], but still shares the same prime form The tone row contains trichords which, in combination with the ordering of rows, implies a quasi-tonal chord progression in a ternary form.
The composer also uses the BACH motive in both direct quotations, as well as layering the prime form underneath it, in prime and inverted forms. It is in this movement that one sees more similarity between Dallapiccola and a more traditional approach to serialism. Even though there are no words, this movement is set up as a sung melody line over a chordal accompaniment.
There are four phrases in this movement, , and can be divided into two distinct halves. The first two phrases are set in an arioso style, while the rhythmic aspect of the second half is reminiscent of early Italian recitative.
With the exception of one shared note in the second and fourth phrases, there are no elisions or overlapping of the rows. As happened in the first movement, Dallapiccola creates implied tonal sonorities through his tetrachords and groupings, although these rows do not follow a quasi-tonal chord progression. There is some invariance between these rows, which connect them all together.
I10 and P9 both start with [9,t,2,5], R1 and RI6 both start with [7,0], and obviously using RI6 in the accompaniment of the second phrase and the melody of the third phrase.
Dallapiccola uses a row that contains three discreet tetrachords, , , and which unifies each of the phrases into one cohesive movement Figure 5. I [ T 9 5 2 ] [ 0 6 7 3 ] [ 1 8 e 4 ] Normal form: [9,t,2,5] [0,3,6,7] [8,e,1,4] Prime Form: Figure 5: Discreet Tetrachords of Quartina Row Also hidden in the invariance of the rows, the first three rows either create a chromatic tetrachord or a whole tone tetrachord, by either having invariance, or being excluded from the invariance of the hexachords.
For example, both I10 and R1 of the first phrase share [t,0] and [e,1] in their respective hexachords, which when combined, created the chromatic tetrachord which is also the same prime form as the Bach motive seen in the first movement.
This opening up of the tetrachord provides a sense of harmonic tension and release. We see how Dallapiccola went beyond traditional serialism, embracing tonal sonorities and quasi-tonal progressions that were embedded within the row, how both movements use baroque forms, and how the Bach motive is used both as main thematic material, but also layered underneath other material.
Unlike the first movement, this movement presents two contrasting rows simultaneously, in the right and left hands. As there are four phrases, each phrase uses one of the four variations of the row. There is some invariance between the pairs of rows, especially in the second phrase. First phrase, the invariance between rows creates a chromatic tetrachord [t,e,0,1]. Second phrase excludes a whole tone tetrachord [0,2,4,6]. Third phrase includes [6,7,8,9] , while the fourth phrase with one minor exception uses the two transpositions of the whole tone chord The first and third phrases have a chromatic tetrachord invariance between the simultaneous rows [t,e,0,1] for the first, and a [6,7,8,9] at T8 for the third.
The second phrase share all integers, except for a whole tone tetrachord [0,2,4,6] in each half of the hexachordal combinatoriality. Does it hold a relationship to the title? In what ways might the concept of the piece reflective of the title guide row choices? Stacked, there is always an opposing row, so that is always a major and a minor trichord in the two rows.
Three discreet tetrachords in each row Connections: The rows I10 and P9 both start with the same tetrachord [9,t,2,5], R1 and RI6 both start with [7,0] which is a perfect fifth sonority, and by using the same row in the accompaniment then melody, RI6 and RI6 provides a connection between the two halves.
Within the first three phrases, there is invariance between the hexachords which either creates a chromatic tetrachord in the first and third phrases, or by exclusion a whole tone tetrachord in the second phrase. This expansion and contraction provides an extra layer of harmonic tension between the rows. Dallapiccola creates four self- contained phrases, which are clearly organized into two halves.
Reminiscent of 17th century Italian opera, the first two phrases are in an arioso style, while the second pair of phrases are more recitativo. What sonority is made by the last three notes of P10? How so? What is the form of the movement? The movement is in ternary form. Besides row choices, what elements of the piece clearly delineate the form and how so?
Tempo changes from 84 to and back to 84 Textural change from a rhythmic ostinato with very staccatissimo accentuated articulation, while B section is legatissimo and linear. We can first see this transposed with p. As part of your analysis, continue to trace and mark on the score where these motives occur, and any T and TI relationships they may hold to this first appearance. There are a number of very clear setting of the BACH motive, but when it is reduced down to prime form , we can see that Dallapiccola uses the BACH motive, but also layers in the into the motive itself.
Are there interesting ways that Dallapiccola uses his rows that are different from other composers we have studied? He uses the tonal qualities of the rows to create quasi tonal progressions. In the B section , some of the trichords are used out of row order, but always after the original order have already been presented.
Related Papers. By Yoshi Omune. By John Brackett. By Adam Shanley. On Contextual Transformations. By Philip Lambert. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up.
Musical Form and Transformation: Four Analytic Essays