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Is re religion ligion, properly understood, the only refuge of mankind from these impending calamities? They are searching for an answer to this question. On the other hand the Muslims are claiming openly and repeatedly before the whole world that Islam is the only ideology that can permanently unite the human race, carry man to that establish a lasting peace on earth and highest stage of his mental, moral, material and spiritual evolution of which there is a promise in the potentialities of his nature.
This devolves upon the Muslims the responsibility to tell world what Islam is, how it differs from other the religions, what are the intellectual foundations of its claims, what are its aims and objects and how it intends to realize them. But since the appearance, a cen tury ago, of the Communists Manifesto as an instrument of world-wide propagation of Communism leading ulti mately to the emergence of that ideology as a great political power in the world this word has acquired a new signifi cance, as a statement setting forth the historical bases, the fundamental principles and the expected achievements of an ideology demanding a world-wide recognition.
I am using the word only in this latter sense. The readers of this booklet will find that, as an ex planation of the fundamental principles of Islam, its subject- matter takes the shape of a theory of History based on a theory of human nature, according to which Islam is the inevitable world-ideology of the future.
The central idea of this theory of human nature is that man s urge for an ideal is the sole, the real and the ultimate motivating force of all his activities, even those which proceed immediately from his animal instincts, and that this urge can be satisfied only by an ideal of the highest Beauty and Perfection. This idea comes into conflict, not only with the atheistic philosophy of Marx but also with the psycholo gical theories of Freud, Adler and McDougall which are generally considered to be the standard and the correct theories of human nature in modern times.
Readers of the Manifesto of Islam who may desire to know in greater detail the facts which force one of this to accept the validity idea vis-a-vis all these theories and of other philosophical points raised in this Manifesto are referred to my book Ideology of the Future published by Dm Muhammadi Press, McLeod Road, Karachi, Pakistan.
What is Islam? Briefly defined, Islam is the name of an ideology thai lias been taught by the prophets from the earliest known times. Innumerable prophets have appeared from time to time in all parts of the world to teach this ideology to all sections of the human race, consistently with the conditions of their times, the circumstances of their exis tence and the stage of their mental and moral evolution.
We sent messengers before dice of them arc those We have men tioned to thcc and of them are those We have not mentioned to dice. The number of these prophets is estimated to be more than a hundred thousands. Since the message of all these prophets is fundamentally the same, every prophet has testified to the truth of his predecessors and prophesied the advent of his successor.
However, since the message of the prophets acquired its theoretical completeness and practical application to all the important aspects includ ing the social, economic, political and military aspects of human life in the precept and the life-example of the Prophet Mohammad peace be upon him he has become the last of the prophets and the term Islam has come to be applied exclusively to his teachings embodied in the Quran and Sunnah.
Islam calls upon all human beings to love and to see to it that their love is as pure, sincere and wholehearted as possible and that it goes on developing towards an ever greater and greater perfection, purity and sincerity without dwindling or suffering frustration for a single moment. The need of Islam The question arises: Does the phenomenon of pro- phethood really a purpose in nature? The answer to this question is that a perfect and per manent love which takes the form of an urge for an is the most ideal powerful and the most dominant desire of all the inborn desires of man, nay, it is virtually the sole desire of his nature and prophethood is the only agency that provides for its satisfaction.
This is God s handi thy face steadily work, the pattern on which he has made mankind. No change- can there be in the work wrought by God that is the standard : religion but most among mankind understand not. The analysis of human nature. Two levels of the natural human desires. The lower desires of man A study of the nature of man reveals that there arc two levels of the natural human desires. Firstly, those desires known as instincts which result from man s nature as an animal e.
Their characteristics are as follows : a They are common to man and the animals below him in the scale of evolution. The higher desires of man Secondly, those desires which result from man s nature as a human being.
These are as follows : a The desire for an ideal. Their characteristics are as follows : 1 They are the special privilege of man which is not shared by other animals. A fundamental difference between an animal and a human being is that, while an animal only knows, feels and thinks, a man not only knows, feels and thinks but, while he does so, he also knows that he knows, feels and thinks. In other words, while an animal is only conscious, man is self- conscious.
It is this fact that creates a difference between the natures of the animal and the human being. The desires that arc peculiar to man are the desires of his self-consciousness or self. They arc free desires belonging exclusively to the psychological plane, as the course of their satisfaction not biologically or instinctively fixed. For what is an ideal but an idea to which a person ascribes the highest beauty or perfection known to him? And what is art but the a medium expression of beauty through?
A common variety of Art Art is to be confined to the ex generally supposed pression of beauty in brick, stone, voice, sound, colour, word or movement and therefore to be the activity of a few persons specially gifted or trained to indulge in it. But there is a variety of art in which all people indulge and that is the expression of beauty in the manner of living, c.
The desire for an ideal is the ruling desire of man Man s desire for an ideal dominates all his desires on the purely psychological level. For whenever the pursuit of these desires for their own sake docs not serve the ideal and this happens always when the ideal is wrong- it is twisted, consciously or unconsciously, to make it serve the ideal. The reason is that man attributes to his ideal all a the beauty that he desires. This explains why there is different moral law, a different philosophy, a different view and use of science and a different art for every ideal.
That is not all. Man s desire for an ideal dominates and controls all his desires on the biological level as well. The animal cannot check the biological compulsion of its instincts. But in the human being no instinct can have its satisfaction without the sanction of the ideal and it can have to which this sanction its only upto the extent satisfaction is given and no more.
When the ideal of an individual demands the continuation of his life, he exerts himself to the utmost for the satisfaction of his instincts; but, when proper the demands of the ideal are otherwise, he ignores his instincts and even becomes ready to sacrifice his life. Thus virtually man has only one desire and that is the desire for an ideal.
It is the real, the ultimate and the sole motivating force of all his activities: It is that all-powerful urge of the human mind which Freud misinterprets as an urge for sex, Adler misunderstands as an urge for power, McDougall mistakes as a mysterious outcome of the com bination of all the animal instincts of man and Karl Marx misrepresents as an unconscious distortion of the economic urge in the human being. The urge for an ideal and the mental and moral health of humanity The obstruction or frustration of this desire causes a weak and cramped personality, unhappiness, grief and nervous disorders and its complete and constant satisfaction causes joy and elation.
The greater the love of a man for his ideal, the more unified, more highly evolved, more powerful and loftier and nobler is his personality and the greater and fuller is his joy, happiness or satisfaction. The meaning of History Hence ever since man has become conscious of himself, he is searching for an ideal which he may be able to love, serve, adore and admire constantly and wholeheartedly and the love of which may never dwindle, deteriorate or surfer frustration i.
Very often the search for such an ideal involves him in serious troubles, brings him face to face with huge calamities and takes from him a toll of heavy sacrifices including the sacrifice of his life itself. Yet he does not give it up because the relentless urge of his nature impels him to continue it at all costs. The general qualities of an ideal The What are the actual qualities that question arises: man expects his ideal to possess? The answer to this ques tion is contained in the very nature of his urge for an ideal which can be satisfied only by an ideal of the highest beauty and perfection, that is, an ideal is free from every defect or blemish that we a which can possibly think of and the highest perfection all the b which possesses upto qualities and attributes that we can by our nature look up on as lovable, admirable and beautiful.
Defect is the enemy of love. Hence the awareness of the presence of the slightest defect or of the absence of the smallest element of beauty in a man s ideal turns the whole of his love for it into hatred. A man can love a low, ugly or imperfect ideal too but only as long as he can attribute to it all the imaginable qualities of beauty and and can deceive himself that it docs possess all perfection these qualities in actual fact. The particular qualities of an ideal From these general premises we can deduce the specific qualities of theideal of a human being very easily.
We can know, for example, that the beauty of his ideal must unlimited and eternal be For, if he knows that its beauty has a limit beyond which it cannot go, he must believe that a part or an aspect of it is ugly. If again he knows that its beauty will come to an end after sometime, he must consider it to be ugly even now. His ideal must be alive. He cannot take for his ideal, that he consciously and deliberately, the idea of anything believes to be dead or lifeless.
He is himself alive and cannot therefore love, admire, adore or serve, with self- sacrifice, the idea of anything that appears to him to be lifeless and therefore inferior to himself. This means that it must hear, sec, under stand, feel, love and respond, must have a purpose to be achieved in the human world and have the power to act for and succeed in the realization of that purpose. In other words, it must have certain likes and dislikes and possess the power to encourage and support what it likes and dis courage and destroy what it dislikes, to reward its lovers and helpers and to punish its enemies and opponents.
In brief, it must have all the qualities of love and hatred and must exercise them for the achievement of its purpose. If a man s ideal lacks any of these qualities and he becomes aware of it, it becomes impossible for him to love and serve his ideal any more. Love always demands action in the service of the be loved and the object of such action is to please the beloved and to have the satisfaction of winning the favour or the nearness of the beloved. Having an ideal or loving an ideal has no other meaning except striving after it, serving it and thereby approaching it more and more.
But if the ideal that a man loves has no likes and dislikes, no criterion of discrimination between right and wrong, i. Man wants to act and to know how to act, in the service of his ideal. He cannot be satisfied with a love that is incapable of being translated into action. What a man regards as virtue is, strictly speaking, never its own reward. It is always rewarded by the pleasing conviction that it is his ideal approved by which he always imagines to be a person or a personality.
A mans ideal must be poiverful. For if he thinks that his ideal not powerful enough to reward its supporters is and punish its enemies, he will feel that loving and ser ving it is a useless task. The reason is that, while he will do his utmost to change the world in accordance with the demand of his ideal, its opponents will undo his endea vours and unmake with ease and impunity what he has made.
In such a case he will feel that his ideal is weak and helpless and unworthy of his love and devotion. For, we look upon these qualities as lovable, admirable and beautiful. Should he think that his ideal lacks any of these qualities or lacks any of them upto the highest degree, he must consider it to be a defect and must cease to love it.
His moreover, must be unique and without a peer ideal, or a partner in its qualities. For if he thinks that there is another idea which shares its qualities, he will be called upon to love two ideals at the same time and this is something which makes it impossible for him to do. If this is not so, the laws operating in the Universe on the physical, biological and psychological planes laws which will not be the creation of his ideal in such a case will come into conflict with the common pur pose of his ideal and his own and neither he himself nor his ideal will be able to achieve this purpose.
Moreover, if he believes that the Universe, including his own person, has come into being of itself and is out of the control of his ideal, he will feel that his ideal is inferior to him or at themost equal to him and will not, therefore, feel the urge to love, admire, adore or serve it.
Since these are the qualities that man likes his ideal to possess, no matter what his ideal may be it may be stone, a an idol, a nation, a race, a country, an ideology, a religion or an ism , he always attributes all these qualities to it, some consciously and others uncon sciously. Whether the ideal is a concrete object, an idea or a creed, its lover behaves towards it always as if it is a endowed with all the qualities of life, power, person, beauty, goodness and truth.
This is what makes it for him to love, admire, adore and serve it with possible the whole of his being. The human urge for an ideal and the Reality of the Universe Now on the one hand man has a powerful urge to love the idea of an all-powerful, moral personality which may be the Creator of the world and on the other hand there is no explanation of the Universe more convincing and more in accordance with all the known facts than this that the is an Reality of the Universe All-powerful Creative Self- consciousness which possesses all the qualities of beauty and perfection.
This means that the ideal which the human race is seeking through the process of History i.
The Ideology Of The Future By Dr Muhammad Rafiuddin
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Ideology of the Future
The Ideology of the Future by Dr Muhammad Rafiuddin