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The most important are remains of mammals, among which domestic animals slightly outnumber game. Five species of domestic animal are present: dog, and four economically important species — cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. Cattle bones preponderate within domestic animals, but pig remains are also numerous.
Red deer, wild boar and roe deer are the most frequently hunted prey. Birds were rarely hunted, but fishing was a regular activity. Occasionally, tortoises and river clams were collected as an additional food supply. Key words. This issue. Horizons relating to a Mediaeval necropolis, of the tell down to the earliest levels of the Animal bones were not collected. The tion season. This indicates composition. A small part of the faunal material shows the complexity of the site, demonstrating that even the traces of weathering caused by exposition to atmosphe- large sample analysed may not be representative for ric influences before being buried in the sediment.
Only the whole site, i. These are mostly parts and units of the settlement. The colour of the bones is predominantly grey or analyses have been carried out on rather a small number dark grey, though many fragments show staining related of them. Sites differ by size, duration of occupation, ber of specimens, there are calcified, carbonized, burned and social and economic status.
Consequently, there are and partly burned specimens. There is no particular differences in faunal composition, the proportion of do- regularity in their distribution, but they are found on mestic and hunted animals, patterns of animal exploita- the whole researched area.
As is common for Neolithic tion and other faunal characteristics. Disposal of faunal remains have been unselectively collected bones contributed additionally to the fragmentation of during the excavations, meaning that all observed frag- the material, while animal gnawing also played a part.
In the course of the campaign flotation of the gathered specimens in terms of skeletal element samples from selected units began. However, the flotation material is not included in this 10 Clason This was sub- 16 Legge This study is related to 18 Stage 1 after Behrensmeyer These ctions with animals or their remains.
Contextual analy- are excluded because counting every horn-core and sis is not performed here. This is due to the very complex antler fragment would bias the proportion of taxa in situation found in the excavation area, caused by the favour of bovids and cervids.
Horn-cores and antlers are foundations of houses from the later habitation level. Further, the method of counting diag- as well as mollusc shells table 1. Similar elements are counted in all taxa, and freshwater molluscs is given by NISP Number of thus avoiding biased proportions resulting from anato- Identified Specimens and MNI Minimum Number of mical differences for example five metapodials in dog Individuals.
Diagnostic zones general picture of the proportions they are not directly were counted for upper and lower fourth permanent pre- comparable, as they are based on different criteria for molar alveolus or deciduous last molar alveolus, atlas, different vertebrate classes or molluscs.
Mollusc shells axis, distal scapula, pelvic acetabulum, proximal and are counted for NISP if a beak in bivalves or an apex in distal humerus, femur, radius and tibia, proximal ulna, snails has been preserved. MNI is evaluated on the base astragalus, calcaneus, and proximal and distal third me- of the greater number of left or right valves in bivalves.
Their MNI is esta- blished according to one plate of the armour. Domestic animals outnumber game, although this Freshwater bivalves and freshwater and terrestrial prevalence is not very accentuated fig. They produ- snails are presented since they possibly contributed as ced the most important, and most reliable meat supply. The latter are, small forms, The share of domestic animals among the mammal important as environment indicators, but certainly not remains recovered at the site and the relative proporti- as food sources.
Also, marine and fossil mollusc remains ons of particular species of domestic animals is difficult are not presented here, as they originate from outside to state precisely as it is not always possible to diffe- the environment and played a different role in the life rentiate domestic animals from their wild progenitors, of man from the rest of the fauna. Frequency distribution of various Cattle are one of the most frequent species, if we taxa is expressed by the number of identified specimens, consider all remains ascribed to the cattle genus, whether diagnostic zones and minimal number of individuals table 2.
The wild form contributes the surable specimens like mandibles counted even if only least: only 8 bones have been found that have been po- P4 or D4 alveoli were present, or damaged pelvic bones. Although the number of the was not possible due to intermediate size between do- cattle bones identified as Bos sp. Distal metatarsal breadth Bd and depth Dd relationship of domestic cattle and aurochs Sl.
Cattle distal metatarsals: a Bos primigenius, predestined for slaughtering. Permanent teeth, especially aurochs, Mt sin. However, Fig. Domestic, wild and specifically unidentified the presence of intermediates may also mark the remains of pig comprise the most represented genus overlap in size of large males of domestic species and among large mammals fig. The frequency distri- small females of wild species. On the majority of Neolithic sites in the re- intermediate size is found, encompassing wild cattle gion the situation is also different, since, while pigs are females and domestic males.
Both the variation ranges and means of domestic and wild pig remains are rather easily dis- are similar to the Late Neolithic cattle of Selevac, Divo- tinguished, due to obvious differences in size in both stin, and Opovo.
Not only tooth rows but also isolated teeth proved specimens probably belonging to males Table 3. Age structure was observed on mandibles, specifically on those specimens that con- 21 Legge Out of 14 mandibles with P4 22 Clason , Russell Even milk teeth are distinguishable fig. Con- siderable size differences between the domestic and wild forms have also been established at other Neolithic sites in Serbia. The juvenile animal remains and their identification, meanwhile, are key for understanding the percentage distribution of the two species.
Were we to draw conclusions only on the basis of adult animals, it would seem that wild pigs were more numerous for example, according to the number of the measured specimens of the third lower molar Fig.
However, if the first lower molar, which erupts early, is observed we find the opposite situation Fig. Therefore, it is assumed that the breeding of the domestic pig was direc- ted at the slaughtering of young animals, while a small number of adults were retained for reproduction.
With regard to the hunting of wild pig, it seems that mostly adult, mature animals were hunted. Sus sp. Among 45 pig lower jaws that contained teeth, and could be attributed an Sl. In fact, sheep and goat separation has animal. In the remaining 35 lower jaws, 18 with milk advanced recently in more and more skeletal elements. In the more recent publications are especially helpful in dealing next age group there are lower jaws with replaced milk with teeth. Various postcra- goats. Among 32 lower jaws specifically identified, 25 nial bones with unfused epiphyses also indicate the pre- belong to sheep, and 7 to goats.
Accordingly, their ratio sence of several age groups among pig juveniles. Nevertheless, Skeletal remains, especially large cranial parts of pig the proportions look different when different skeletal and cattle, are found in concentrations in several places elements are taken into consideration. For example, if within the research area, again suggesting simultaneous we consider tibia, astragalus, or metapodials, the pro- butchery and treatment of large numbers of animals.
This is also the and domestic pig. In addition, other medium and small 28 After Matschke , from Bull and Payne The most numerous are spe- cimens aged from 9 months to 2 years, i. The absence of the youngest age groups is also observed by Arnold and Greenfield33 in their study of transhumant pastoralism based on the man- Fig.
Domestic and wild pig dibles derived from the excavations at the site. Teeth from the same jaws one goat. Zubi iz iste vilice povezani su linijama The size of the sheep, as illustrated by whithers height of The small Neolithic breed of sheep is replaced by a larger breed in the Bronze age, which is considered to have been herded primarily for wool production.
Exploitation for the sake of wool production is not easy to prove even on much more abundant material Relationship of domestic and wild pig A whithers height established for goat on the basis third lower molar length L and breadth B of a single radius is Dog remains comprise 5. The fragmentation rate pattern differs from are presented, for example at Kastanas.
Morphological features and skeleton size correspond The age distribution based on mandibles with D4 or to a clearly domesticated form of small to medium size. P4 alveoli preserved indicates that less than one quarter of sheep attained fully grown age. This indicates that orientation towards exploitation of milk and wool is 32 Becker , At the 34 According to parameters given by Teichert There are no mandibles with only milk 37 See tibia, metatarsal and astragalus measurements in Table 5.
On the basis of butchering traces on dog bones, it seems that dog meat was occasionally consumed. Cuts on dog bones are recognized as butchering marks on vertebrae, for example on the transverse process of a lumbar vertebra found with two other articulated lum- bar vertebrae fig.
One of the vertebrae bears traces of fire on the broken ends of the transverse processes which also points to possible roasting of pieces of dog meat. The percentage of dog bones with various traces of fire, from completely calcined to partly burned spe- cimens, is rather high at
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