INFORME COTEC 2011 PDF

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The impact of science on today's society has been defined as the most important cultural and social phenomenon of the last few centuries. Contributions to knowledge in the field of science are often only recognized if they are published in a scientific journal, and therefore the scientific capacity of a country is usually evaluated in terms of the quantity and quality of its publications. In recent years, the analysis of patents as indicators of innovation and technological capacity has slowly emerged from among the traditional indicators.

Patent analysis is highly important in the field of competitive intelligence, as it makes technological information that otherwise would not be publicized available to all researchers. These analyses are useful in innovation, technology transfer and industrial competitiveness, as well as to encourage investment in innovation and provide a basis for negotiating intellectual property assets. Scientists and technologists differ in how they inform the scientific community of progress.

Personal promotion is a compelling force in obliging the scientist to publish. Technologists, however, are less concerned about scientific publication; their interest is in patenting.

Between and , the field of Immunology had an average citation rate for papers published, of This paper aims to ascertain the situation of Spanish Immunology in the context of patents.

Each year's patents were obtained in February of the following year. We used the eighth version Applicants were analyzed by economic sectors: Private entities, universities, hospitals or public research organizations PROs and Individuals. The World Economic Forum WEF 10 publishes more than items for comparison between countries, in order to identify areas in which a country has strengths and weaknesses in competitiveness.

We used those items that may have an important relationship with patent applications in Immunology. From to , 89 countries applied for a total of 17, patents in Immunology. The highest number of applications was in , since when they have decreased. The decrease since was seen in almost all countries, with the exception of China, although the number of applications was very low, just 0.

Patent applications from a single applicant country accounted for Spain applied for 87 patents jointly with other countries, yielding an average internationalization level of By number of inhabitants, Spain ranked 20th of the 89 countries studied and the 5th in the EU countries.

However, when analyzing patents per population, Spain dropped to 30th place of world and 14th in the EU. Comparatively, this ratio is eight times lower in Spain than in the United States, and almost 4 times lower than Germany Table 2 A.

Relative positions of EU and several important countries. Current International dollar. In our case, there is a significant bias, since each country uses its strengths to patent. However, considering the obvious bias, we can perceive the interest of each country for Immunology. This ratio is more than two times lower in Spain than in the United States, and 1. This ratio is times lower in Spain than in the United States, and almost 3. The United States is the hub for joint applications, followed by the United Kingdom and, to a lesser extent, Germany Fig.

Relations between the major patent country applicants in Immunology. Spain was more highly represented in Class Organic products; and less represented in Classes Biotechnology and Analysis of Biological Materials data not shown. The number of IPC groups to which patents are assigned for protection is considered an indicator of quality. Worldwide patents were assigned to 3. There were no significant differences between forward citations received by Spanish patents, 0.

During the first year, There were no significant differences between backward citations made by Spanish and worldwide patents, 6. No patents were cited in 5. Private entities of Spain and around the world presented PROs of Spain and the world presented Collaboration between private entities and universities is much lower in Spain than in other countries Table 3.

Comparison of patents in immunology, Spain and worldwide, according to economic sectors. Expressed in percentages. Thirty-one entities applied for over 50 patents, with the University of California standing out at We have linked 19 of the items, World Economic Forum analyzed, with patent applications in immunology. Innovation in Spain has a number of strengths with respect to all the countries analyzed, but when compared with neighbouring countries, some turn into weaknesses Table 4.

Strengths and weaknesses of innovation in Spain, compared with the EU countries and 89 countries around the world. The scientific-technological situation of a country is of high political interest, as advances in research are closely related to economic progress. Scientometric methods, therefore, are internationally accepted instruments. However, the use of patent data should be taken with caution due to the traditional differences existing in each country at the time of patenting.

Furthermore, handling of patent data to obtain manageable databases is far more complicated than data management for publications.

These analyses show that the absolute number of Spanish patents using PCT-WIPO route increased from to , with a peak in with Similarly, the global share of Spanish scientific journal articles has passed since the 2.

If classes are assigned a quality index, we could consider that the quality of global patents is high, as they are attributed to more groups. The integration of universities with the industrial world is imperative, but the large number of Spanish graduates is not absorbed by private companies.

Similar results have been noted by other authors. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. ISSN: Analysis of immunological patents filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty — Descargar PDF. Autor para correspondencia. Table 1. Table 2. Relative positions of EU and several important countries.. Table 3. Expressed in percentages.. Table 4. Strengths and weaknesses of innovation in Spain, compared with the EU countries and 89 countries around the world..

Texto completo. Introduction The impact of science on today's society has been defined as the most important cultural and social phenomenon of the last few centuries. Results From to , 89 countries applied for a total of 17, patents in Immunology. Geneva, May 10, Plaza, A. Rev Esp Doc Cient, 27 , pp. Alianza, , pp. Ensciencias, 16 , pp. Essential Science Indicators SM. Agosto de The global competitiveness report — World Economic Forum, ,.

Sources, performances and impacts. Geyer, F. Scapolo, M. Boden, T. The future of manufacturing in Europe — The challenge for sustainability. European Communities, ,. REDC, 30 , pp. Si continua navegando, consideramos que acepta su uso. To improve our services and products, we use "cookies" own or third parties authorized to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior.

Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking here. Se continuar a navegar, consideramos que aceita o seu uso. Position World-EU. Republic of Korea. Private entities PE only. Universities U only. Hospitals H only. EU media 28 countries.

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INFORME COTEC 2011 PDF

The impact of science on today's society has been defined as the most important cultural and social phenomenon of the last few centuries. Contributions to knowledge in the field of science are often only recognized if they are published in a scientific journal, and therefore the scientific capacity of a country is usually evaluated in terms of the quantity and quality of its publications. In recent years, the analysis of patents as indicators of innovation and technological capacity has slowly emerged from among the traditional indicators. Patent analysis is highly important in the field of competitive intelligence, as it makes technological information that otherwise would not be publicized available to all researchers. These analyses are useful in innovation, technology transfer and industrial competitiveness, as well as to encourage investment in innovation and provide a basis for negotiating intellectual property assets. Scientists and technologists differ in how they inform the scientific community of progress.

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This is one aspect, which in our view, no straightening is achieved in Spain. If companies were concerned, the number of patents would be similar, because they work bidirectionally. Another aspect that reinforces this view is the ranking that deal in triadic patents see chart , which have commercial value and are significant at the level of innovation, registered in Europe EPO , Japan JPO and the U. USPTO where we occupied 28 of 29 considered.

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R2 Media Factory put Tablet Gothic and Portada to work in a striking design for the annual report of the non-profit organisation Informe Cotec. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the existence of Cotec Italia and Cotec Portugal contributed to spread their message internationally. It has a strong educational focus becoming more approachable for the general audience. R2 have e. The striking design, far away from the generally dull annual reports, helps considerably to make the report more accessible and readable. While it is possible to save space with the condensed families, the heavier weights present a strong display appearance.

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