Deaf person's perception on health care in a midsize city: an descriptive-exploratory study. Descriptive-exploratory, qualitative study carried out at the Center of Adolescents and Adults Education CEJA in Crato-CE, with a sample of 12 deaf people during June and July through semi-structured interview, using the Brazilian sign language and interpreter's aid. Thus, we found that is necessary to train the professionals and organize the services for the health care of deaf people, promoting autonomy and ensuring adequate assistance in the local services network. Key-words: Delivery of health care; Deafness; Health services accessibility; Disabled persons.
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We further confirmed that such differentiation is attributed to increased frequencies of crop-parent alleles in transgenic hybrid lineages at multiple loci across the genome, as estimated by SSR simple sequence repeat markers. We conclude that selecting either a transgene or neutral marker as an identifier to create hybrid lineages will result in different genomic background of the lineages due to non-random transmission of parental alleles.
Non-random allele transmission may misrepresent the outcomes of fitness effects. The undesired environmental impact caused by transgene flow from genetically engineered GE crops to their wild and weedy relatives has stimulated great biosafety concerns worldwide 1 — 6.
It is necessary then to assess the environmental impact prior to the commercialization of any GE crops. Transgenic fitness has been extensively estimated in many types of hybrid descendants derived from crosses between GE crop species and their wild relatives to predict the potential environmental impact of transgene flow, including oilseed rape 13 , 14 , squashes 1 , 15 , sunflowers 10 , 16 , maize 17 , and rice 18 — Therefore, fitness becomes essential for assessing the environmental impact caused by transgene flow, after the frequency of gene flow is determined 5.
The fitness of a transgene is estimated by comparing fitness-related traits between the transgene-present and -absent lineages in the common-garden experiments 10 , 17 — 22 , under the assumption that transgene-present and -absent lineages only differ on average in the presence of the transgene.
Consequently, the detected differences between these lineages are only due to the presence or absence of the transgene s 17 — However, the assumption has never been properly tested. A schematic pedigree to illustrate the production of F 2 a and BC 1 b crop-wild or crop-weed hybrid lineages for estimating the fitness effect of a transgene. In our common garden experiment aimed to estimate fitness of an epsps 5-enolpyruvoylshikimatephosphate synthase transgene, we observed phenotypic differences between F 3 transgenic and non-transgenic seedlings derived from the same crop-wild F 1 hybrids Fig.
The hybrids included two parents: an herbicide-resistant GE rice Oryza sativa line and a wild rice O. We further noticed that the transgenic seedlings exhibited more traits from the cultivated parent e. Apparently, transgenic lineages inherited more traits from the crop parent, while non-transgenic lineages inherited more traits from the wild parent. Phenotypic variation of seedlings in F 3 transgene-present orange arrow and transgene-absent yellow arrow hybrid lineages derived from an artificial cross between an epsps 5-enolpyruvoylshikimatephosphate synthase transgenic rice line and wild rice Oryza rufipogon.
The phenotypic differences between transgenic and non-transgenic hybrid seedlings should not be observed under the assumption that the isogenic hybrid lineages only differ in the transgene but share on average the identical genomic background. It is known that genetic hitchhiking shapes the genome of hybrid populations under natural selection 25 , Similarly, can the artificial selection for a specific gene identifier distort a part of the genome by hitchhiking towards one of the parents?
To address this question, we produced F 2 -F 3 crop-wild and crop-weed hybrid lineages with or without the epsps transgene and neutral microsatellite or SSR simple sequence repeat identifiers Fig. The proof of the hypotheses will facilitate our design of a better method to estimate transgenic fitness, which is important for risk assessment of transgene flow from a GE crop to its wild or weedy relative populations.
In addition, the generated knowledge can also increase our understanding of the effect of selection on transmission of parental alleles into their hybrid descendants. A genomic linkage map illustrating the physical location of the epsps 5-enolpyruvoylshikimatephosphate synthase transgene on chromosome-1 green box , the six neutral SSR simple sequence repeat identifiers pink boxes for crop-wild and blue boxes for crop-weed hybrids , and 52 red letters, for crop-wild hybrids and 32 blue letters, for crop-weed hybrids SSR markers located across the 12 rice chromosomes.
As a comparison, the F st values between the corresponding ideal groups were all less than 0. These results indicated that the division of transgenic and non-transgenic hybrid lineages using the transgene as an identifier would result in differences in their genomic background, probably due to the non-random transmission of parental alleles. Numbers of non-neutral loci between the ideal groups are close to zero. In addition, we also detected much higher frequencies of alleles derived from the epsps rice parent in the transgenic F 2 and F 3 hybrid lineages than in their corresponding non-transgenic lineages Fig.
Altogether, these results suggested that the separation of transgenic and non-transgenic hybrid lineages by using a transgene as an identifier caused non-random transmission of parental alleles into the resulted hybrid lineages. Average frequencies of crop-parent alleles in hybrid lineages a and groups b separated from an F 2 or F 3 hybrid population containing an epsps transgene.
Dark-gray and white columns in a indicate lineages with and without a transgene, respectively. Light-gray columns in b indicate randomly formed groups.
Bars indicate standard deviation. Interestingly, we detected more alleles from cultivated rice in transgenic crop-wild hybrid lineages than in their corresponding non-transgenic lineages at the loci that showed significant differences in parental allele frequencies Fig. Similar results were also found in transgenic crop-weed hybrid lineages Fig.
These results suggested preferential transmission of crop alleles into transgenic hybrid lineages F 2 and F 3 , likely associated with the sampling of the transgene as an identifier to create transgenic and non-transgenic hybrid lineages. Blue and light-blue columns indicate frequencies of crop-parent alleles in lineages with and without markers, respectively; orange and light-orange columns indicate frequencies of wild- or weedy-parent alleles in lineages with and without markers, respectively.
Comparatively high F st values were detected between the corresponding hybrid lineages with or without the three random selected identifiers, ranging from 0. These results suggested considerable genomic differentiation between hybrid lineages with or without the neutral identifier. We found increased allelic frequencies of a parent in crop-wild and crop-weed hybrid lineages that were created by using a neutral identifier from this specific parent, suggesting that preferential allelic transmission from one parent was closely associated with the selection of an identifier located on the genome of this specific parent Fig.
Similar trends were also observed in crop-weed hybrid lineages Fig. Similar trends were also found in crop-weed hybrid lineages Fig. This finding can well explain our previous observation about the phenotypical differences between transgenic and non-transgenic crop-wild hybrid seedlings Fig. Apparently, the selection of the transgenic identifier located on the genome of cultivated rice caused differences in the genomic background, as well as the phenotypes, between transgenic and non-transgenic hybrid lineages.
Therefore, selecting a transgenic identifier from cultivated rice resulted in more traits from the crop parent that contained a transgene. In addition, different frequencies of parental alleles were found between transgenic hybrid lineages and their corresponding non-transgenic counterparts at multiple loci Fig. In addition, we also included F 2 and F 3 hybrid descendants in this study to examine the consistency of the obtained results between independent generations.
To circumvent the possible influences of the epsps transgene Fig. Similar to the results obtained from transgenic hybrid lineages, we also detected significant differentiation in the genomic background of transgene-free hybrid lineages with or without the neutral identifiers used to separate hybrid descendants F 2 -F 3.
The finding indicated that even without the involvement of a transgene, genomic differentiation still occurred between the identifier-present and -absent F 2 -F 3 hybrid lineages separated by using the neutral identifiers. In addition, significant differences in frequencies of parental alleles were also found between the transgene-free hybrid lineages with or without the neutral identifiers at multiple loci.
The differences in allele frequencies indicated that selecting a neutral identifier would also influence transmission of the parental alleles into hybrid lineages 27 — The above findings indicate the strong influence of artificial sampling or selection of a target identifier, regardless of a transgene or other types of markers e. Remington et al. Therefore, the method may not be appropriate for the assessment of the environmental biosafety impact caused by transgene flow, even though it has been commonly applied to estimate fitness of a transgene s in different crop-wild and crop-weed hybrid combinations for decades 10 , 17 — Thus, it is necessary to develop a more appropriate method for transgenic fitness evaluation, by considering differences in the genomic background between transgenic and non-transgenic hybrid lineages.
Interestingly, we also found preferential transmission of parental alleles into F 2 -F 3 lineages in the transgene-free hybrid combinations, which was associated with the selection of a specific parental identifier. In other words, more alleles from a parent were detected at multiple loci in hybrid lineages having a neutral identifier from this specific parent, no matter it was used as a male or female parent.
This result supports our third hypothesis about preferential allelic transmission from a parent, which is associated with the selection of an identifier from the specific parent. The preferential transmission of parental alleles at multiple loci is probably due to the positive selection or hitchhiking effect of these alleles that are genetically linked to the selected identifiers.
The observation demonstrates the critical role of artificial selection in increased frequencies of traits genes favored by human beings and other genetically linked alleles by the hitchhiking effect.
The finding of preferential transmission of genetically linked alleles from a parent by selection may have its important implications in molecular marker-assisted selection in plant breeding, as indicated in the studies of tomatoes 35 , sour cherries 36 , rice 37 , and maize In addition, this finding has its significance in the studies of evolution under selection.
In addition, our finding of preferential parent-allele transmission into hybrid lineages at multiple loci also provides useful insights for understanding the strong effect of artificial selection of a marker identifier , regardless of a transgene or a neutral allele, on parent-allele transmission into hybrid lineages. The generated knowledge also has important implications for molecular marker-assisted selection in plant breeding and for evolutionary studies by means of selection.
EP3 contained a transgene overexpressing epsps produced through agrobacterium-mediated transformation from Minghui EP3 was bred to T 5 generation with one copy of the homozygous transgene For transgenic and non-transgenic hybrid combinations, F 2 and F 3 crop-wild and crop-weed descendants were included for analyses. To create hybrid lineages or subpopulations with or without a transgene, we used the epsps transgene as an identifier to separate GE and non-GE lineages from the F 2 individuals or F 3 individuals crop-wild and crop-weed hybrid populations Fig.
The presence and absence of the epsps transgene in each plant was identified through PCR polymerase chain reactions analyses following the method of Wang et al. Hybrid lineages a and ideal groups b created from an experimental hybrid population F 2 or F 3 for analyses.
Identifier represents either a transgene or a neutral marker that are used to separate hybrid lineages. To create hybrid lineages with or without an identifier, we used neutral SSR markers as identifiers to separated identifier-present and -absent hybrid lineages from F 2 individuals or F 3 individuals hybrid populations Fig.
In addition, we also created ideal groups or subpopulations Fig. The electrophoretic outputs were scored as genotype data using the software GeneMapper version 4. Frequencies of parental alleles in hybrid lineages at each locus were calculated to estimate allele transmission.
Wang and J. Su kindly provided epsps transgenic rice line EP3. All authors reviewed the manuscript. Electronic supplementary material. Supplementary information accompanies this paper at doi Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Published online Sep 5. PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Bao-Rong Lu, Email: nc. Corresponding author. Received Mar 22; Accepted Aug Abstract It is essential to assess environmental impact of transgene flow from genetically engineered crops to their wild or weedy relatives before commercialization.
Introduction The undesired environmental impact caused by transgene flow from genetically engineered GE crops to their wild and weedy relatives has stimulated great biosafety concerns worldwide 1 — 6. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing
The functional significance of ADARs is much more diverse than previously appreciated and this gene regulatory function of ADARs is most likely to be of high biological importance beyond the best-studied editing function. This non-editing side of ADARs opens another door to target cancer. ADAR3, which has no documented deaminase activity, is only reported in central nervous system 5. In coding regions, A-to-I RNA editing can lead to a codon change and the consequent alterations of protein-coding sequences since inosine is interpreted by the ribosome as guanosine 3. The differential editing frequencies of these recoding sites are found to impact on human diseases such as neurological disease and cancer 8 —
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